Quiet Night Thought - Li Bai ( Tang Dynasty )

February 12, 2018  •  Leave a Comment

Moonlight before my bed
Perhaps frost on the ground.
Lift my head and see the moon
Lower my head and pine for home.

Ghost in the machine (IV)Ghost in the machine (IV)Concept of Mind


Conquest of Happiness

February 12, 2018  •  Leave a Comment

Bertrand Russell’s 1930 book examined “The conquest of happiness”. The converse of happiness, suffering, as ubiquitous is central to Buddhism.

Soto Zen

Surprisingly there has been a collapse of British Christianity: the British Social Attitudes survey showed in 1983, 37 % of the population self-declared as Anglican, in 2017 it’s 17%. This is illustrated by images of a virtual tour throughout an empty York Minster, where regal power mixes with religion. Orthodox Christianity believes in contemplation and a god above, illustrated by Canterbury Cathedral cloisters and roof and a series of gilded roof bosses at York, usually unnoticed because of their height, showing the life of Christ. Attempts by a king to rise to divinity are shown by the mountainous world heritage giant statues at Nemrut.

Nemrut - the King who claimed divinity

In 1981, the moral philosopher Alasdair McIntyre wrote in “After Virtue “, that the Enlightenment’s inability to provide a authoritative source of morality to replace the Christian–Aristotelian one it rejected, had left the west adrift. Macintyre compared our age to the Roman Empire’s decline, a comparison that the sixth century saint, Pope Benedict XVI, also made. This is illustrated by images of homeless rough sleepers beside cathedrals, unheeded by people walking past cited by some as representing the disconnect of the church with the secular state. Rural images of children learning to kill animals and the desire for accumulation illustrate further examples of lapses in moral leadership.

Protect the weak

Benedict promoted establishment of thirteen monastic communities in tune with nature; there are similarities to the teaching of Japanese zen master Dogan, seven hundred years later. Images are shown of senior Christian clergy and the Queen’s cousin taking up Benedict’s and Degen’s example, establishment of a zen sangha, recognition of lineage, and pursuit of the four Bodhisattva vows despite castigation from evangelists in the national press.

 

 


Women, devotion and dance

February 12, 2018  •  Leave a Comment

George Bernard Shaw wrote “Dance is a perpendicular expression of a horizontal desire“, thus emphasising the bonding and communication that is at the core of dance.

Wedding Dance

Aumphotos' new book " Women, devotion and dance " highlights the perception that in general dance is considered socially a feminine activity.

In addition dance is shown to transcend culture and geography –  examples are shown from four continents.

 

Movement and pleasure in the dancers and spectators are shown. In addition recent neuroscience speculates that mirroring of movement enhances pleasure (possibly via mirror neurons). Gestalt is a German word that means form, pattern or configuration. In further depth, the Gestalt Theory is the character of human experience and behaviour and focuses on wholes and whole patterns. As a result the way in which we see our reflection in the mirror, is unified by the actions of the brain, creating a recognizable image out of purely geometrical shapes, curves and lines; examples of this in dance are shown.

Gestalt image of symmetry reflection and dance

Further examples are shown of additional pleasure derived in dance from dress, energy, feelings of empowerment; children are shown learning the benefits and pleasure of dance. Finally examples of expression of spirituality and religious devotion in dance are shown from Hindu Bharatnatyam, smoke, rotational and stick dances, Buddhist death dance, and Sufi-derived dance.

Dhun NachiyeDevotional dance of smoke


Zen and the Art of Photography IV - The Song of Jeweled Mirror Samadhi

August 05, 2016  •  Leave a Comment

Song of Jeweled Mirror Samadhi

By Ch'an Master Tung-shan Liang-chieh

Depiction of the the mutuality of Light and Dark as restricting each other

and at the same time being fused in each other 

 

Tung-shan Liang-chieh (Tõzan Ryõkai,  “Cave Mountain Good Servant” ;  807-869) is the founder of the Ts'ao-tung (Sõtõ) School of Zen Buddhism. He was a contemporary of Lin-chi I-hsüan (Rinzai Gigen, d.866 臨済義玄). Tung-shan's poem, which was composed when he saw his reflection in the stream which he was crossing at the time, may give us some glimpse into his inner experience of the Prajñâpâramitâ:

 

           Beware of seeking [the Truth]  by others,

            Further and further he retreats from you;

            Alone I go now all by myself,

            And I meet  him everywhere I turn.

            He is no other than myself,

            And yet I am not he.

            When thus understood,

            I am face to face with  Tathatâ."

            (Essays in Zen Buddhism – Third Series 238)

 

            Long seeking it through others,

           I was far from reaching it.

            Now I go by myself;

            I meet it everywhere.

           It is just I myself,

            And I am not itself.

           Understanding this way,

            I can be as I am.

            (Two Zen  Classics 267)

 

           Do not seek from another,

            Or you will be estranged from self.

            I now go  on alone,

            Finding I meet It everywhere.

            It now is I,

            I now am not It.

            One should  understand in this way

            To merge with suchness  as is.

            (Transmission of Light 38)

 

            Don't seek from others,

            Or you'll be estranged from yourself.

            I now go on alone—

            Everywhere I encounter It.

            It now is me, I now am not It.

            One must understand in this way

            To merge with being as is.

            (Transmission of Light 167)

 

Lotus of the heartLotus of the heart

 

While scholars of the Avatamsaka School were making use of the intuitions of Zen in their own way, the Zen masters were drawn towards the philosophy of Indentity and Interpenetration advocated by the Avatamsaka, and attempted to incorporate it into their own discourses.

For instance, Shih-t'ou in his 'Ode on Identity'  depicts the mutuality of Light and Dark as restricting each other and at the same time being fused in each other ; Tung-shan in his metrical composition called 'Sacred Mirror Samadhi' discourses on the mutuality of P'ien, 'one-sided', and Chêng1, 'correct', much to the same effect as Shih-t'ou in his Ode, for both Shih-t'ou and Tung-shan belong to the school of Hsing-szu known as the Ts'ao-tung11 branch of Zen Buddhism. This idea of Mutuality and Indentity is no doubt derived from Avatamsaka philosophy, so ably formulated by Fa-tsang. I have illustrated the mutuality beow in this Chiaroscuro portrait with accompanying silhouette of a singer.

 

Chiarascuro - Mutuality of Light and shade

The Song of the Jewel Mirror Samadhi consists of 94 lines of 4 characters each (376 characters total) (arranged into 47 couplets here). It is a song in which the end of each couplet rhymes with all the others. The jewel is one's true entity; the mirror, the objective spheres reflecting the parts of one's own life. The samadhi is the unity, the Buddha's wisdom that Guatama himself proclaimed at the moment of his enlightenment: "How miraculously wondrous! All beings have the Tathagata's wisdom and virtue." The intimacy is simply realizing that your true nature and the phenomenal world are meeting right here, now, as your life. (from the preface to Two Arrows Meeting Mid-Air: The Zen Koan) . I have endeavoured to depict the Jewel and the path to the jewel as a mirrored golden spiral staircase:

Finally, here is the song of the jeweled mirror samadhi  in it's entirety. both in English and Chinese. In a future article, I will discuss at length the artistic and geometric symmetries within the Chinese characters, demonstrating the supreme skills of the poet. This connection between poetry and art was taken to a high level by the chinese who would juxtapose calligraphy and the relevant image. Ultimately, Shu Shi would call writing, imageless poems.

 

如是之法 佛祖密附   The teaching of suchness, is given directly, through all buddha ancestors,

汝今得之 宜能保護   Now that it's yours, keep it well.

銀碗盛雪 明月藏鷺   A serving of snow in a silver bowl, or herons concealed in the glare of the moon

類而不斉 混則知處   Apart, they seem similar, together, they're different.

意不在言 來機亦赴   Meaning cannot rest in words, it adapts itself to that which arises.

動成臼 差落顧佇   Tremble and you're lost in a trap, miss and there's always regrets.

背觸共非 如大火聚   Neither reject nor cling to words, both are wrong; like a ball of fire,

但形文彩 即屬染汚   Useful but dangerous. Merely expressed in fine language, the mirror will tarnish.

夜半正明 天曉不露   At midnight truly it's most bright, by daylight it cannot still be seen.

爲物作則 用抜諸苦   It is the principle that regulates all, relieving every suffering.

雖非有爲 不是無語   Though it doesn't act it is not without words.

如臨寶鏡 形影相覩    In the most precious mirror form meets reflection:

汝是非渠 渠正是汝   You are not It, but It is all you.

如世嬰児 五相完具   Just as a baby, five senses complete,

不去不來 不起不住   Neither going or coming, nor arising or staying,

婆婆和和 有句無句   Babbles and coos: speech without meaning,

終不得物 語未正故   No understanding, unclearly expressed.

重離六爻 偏正回互   Six lines make the double li trigram, where principle and appearances interact.

疊而成三 變盡爲五   Lines stacked in three pairs yet transform in five ways.

如茎草味 如金剛杵   Like the five flavors of the hyssop plant or the five branches of the diamond scepter,

正中妙挾 敲唱雙舉   Reality harmonizes subtly just as melody and rhythm, together make music.

通宗通途 挾帯挾路   Penetrate the root and you fathom the branches, grasping connections, one then finds the road.

錯然則吉 不可犯忤   To be wrong is auspicious, there's no contradiction.

天眞而妙 不屬迷悟   Naturally pure and profoundly subtle, it touches neither delusion nor awakening,

因縁時節 寂然昭著   At each time and condition it quietly shines.

細入無間 大絶方所   So fine it penetrates no space at all, so large its bounds can never be measured.

毫忽之差 不應律呂   But if you're off by a hair's breadth all harmony's lost in discord.

今有頓漸 縁立宗趣   Now there are sudden and gradual schools with principles, approaches so standards arise.

宗趣分矣 即是規矩    Penetrating the principle,

宗通趣極 眞常流注   Mastering the approach, the genuine constant continues outflowing.

外寂内搖 繋駒伏鼠   A tethered horse, a mouse frozen in fear, outwardly still but inwardly whirling:

先聖悲之 爲法檀度   Compassionate sages freed them with teaching.

隨其顛倒 以緇爲素   In upside  down ways folks take black for white.

顛倒想滅 肯心自許   When inverted thinking falls away they realize mind without even trying.

要合古轍 請觀前古   If  you want to follow the ancient path then consider the ancients:

佛道垂成 十劫觀樹   The Buddha, completing the path, still sat for ten eons.

如虎之缺 如馬之     Like a tiger leaving a trace of the prey, like a horse missing the left hind shoe,

以有下劣 寶几珍御   For those whose ability  is under the mark, a jeweled footrest and brocaded robe.

以有驚異 狸奴白     For others who still can manifest wonder there's a house cat and cow.

藝以巧力 射中百歩   Yi the archer shot nine of ten suns from the sky, saving parched crops, another bowman hit targets at hundreds of paces:

箭鋒相値 巧力何預   These skills are small to compare with that in which two arrow points meet head on in mid air.

木人方歌 石女起舞   The wooden man breaks into song, a stone maiden leaps up to dance,

非情識到 寧容思慮   They can't be known by mere thought or feelings, so how can they be analyzed?

臣奉於君 子順於父   The minister still serves his lord, the child obeys his parent.

不順不孝 不奉非輔   Not obeying is unfilial, not serving is a useless waste.

潛行密用 如愚如魯   Practicing inwardly, functioning in secret, playing the fool, seemingly stupid,

只能相續 名主中主   If you can only persist in this way, you will see the lord within the lord.

 

 

 

 

References

1. The Development of Chinese Zen After the Sixth Patriarch. Heinrich Dumoulin. SMC Publishing, Inc. Taipei, n.d..

 

2. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion. Ingrid Fischer-Schreiber, et al. Shambhala Publications. New York, 1994.

 

3. Essays in Zen Buddhism, 3 vols. Daisetsu Teitaro Suzuki. Rider and Company. London, 1949-53.

 

4. Two Zen Classics. Katsuki Sekida. Weatherhill. New York, 1995.

 

5. Zen Essence: The Science of Freedom. Ed. and trans. by Thomas Cleary. Shambhala Publications. New York, 1989.

 


Zen, Dhyana and Art III : Mountains and plum blossom in meditation

June 27, 2016  •  Leave a Comment

Scafell Sunburst IScafell Sunburst - Enlightenment on a mountain

Sunburst viewed from Scafell Pike © ॐ www.aumphotos.com 2016

 

Zen  is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the Middle Chinese word (dʑjen; pinyinChán), which in turn is derived from the Sanskrit word dhyāna( ध्यान ), which can be approximately translated as "absorption" or "meditative state"

It is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that was taken from India by Bodhidharma across the Himalayas and developed in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism. Bodhidharma and other Buddhists advocated the sutras, chants immersed with deep meaning, which had been developed in India for centuries such as the Lankavatara Sutra; Zen master Hogen advocated the Avatamsaka Sutra.

Mahayana was strongly influenced by Taoism, and developed as a distinguished school of Chinese Buddhism. From China, Chan Buddhism spread south to Vietnam, northeast to Korea and east to Japan, where it became known as Japanese Zen.

Zen emphasizes rigorous meditation practice, insight into Buddha-nature, and the personal expression of this insight in daily life, especially for the benefit of others. As such, it de-emphasizes mere knowledge of sutras and doctrine and favours direct understanding through seated meditation (zazen; 座禅) and interaction (Dokusan; 独参) with an accomplished teacher (Roshi) .

The teachings of Zen include various sources of Mahayana thought, especially Yogachara, the Tathāgatagarbha sūtras and the Huayan school, with their emphasis on Buddha-nature, totality, and the Bodhisattva-ideal.[8][9] ThePrajñāpāramitā literature and, to a lesser extent, Madhyamaka have also been influential in the shaping of the "paradoxical language" of the Zen-tradition.

The three traditional schools of Zen in contemporary Japan in decreasing size order are the Sōtō (曹洞), Rinzai (臨済), and Ōbaku (黃檗) schools respectively. Nanpo Shōmyō (南浦紹明 (1235–1308)  studied Linji teachings in China before founding the Japanese Otokan lineage, the most influential and only surviving lineage of Rinzai in Japan. In 1215, Dōgen, a younger contemporary of Eisai's, also journeyed to China, where he became a disciple of the Caodong master Tiantong Rujing. After his return, Dōgen established the Sōtō school, the Japanese branch of Caodong.

 

In the Soto school of Zen, meditation with no objects, anchors, or content, is the primary form of practice. The meditator strives to be aware of the stream of thoughts, allowing them to arise and pass away without interference. Considerable textual, philosophical, and phenomenological justification of this practice can be found throughout Dōgen's Shōbōgenzō, as for example in the "Principles of Zazen" and the "Universally Recommended Instructions for Zazen". In the Japanese language, this practice is called Shikantaza.

 

The Koan – Paradoxical stories which illuminate

Particularly in the Rinzai school, zazen is usually associated with the study of koans A kōan, literally "public case", is a paradoxical story or dialogue, describing an interaction between a Zen master and a student. These anecdotes give a demonstration of the master's insight. Koans emphasize the non-conceptional insight that the Buddhist teachings are pointing to. Koans can be used to provoke the "great doubt", and test a student's progress in Zen practice and assist in enlightenment.

Kōan-inquiry may be practiced during zazen (sitting meditation), kinhin (walking meditation), and throughout all the activities of daily life. 

 

Zafu and ZabutonIn Zen temples and monasteries, practitioners traditionally sit zazen as a group in a meditation hall, usually referred to as the <em><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zendo" target="_blank">zendo</a></em>. The practitioner sits on a cushion called a <em><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zafu" target="_blank">zafu</a></em>, which itself is usually placed on top of a low, flat mat called a <em><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zabuton" target="_blank">zabuton</a></em>.<br/> Before taking one's seat, and after rising at the end of the period of zazen, a Zen practitioner performs a <em>gassho</em> bow to their seat, and a second bow to fellow practitioners.<br/> The beginning of a period of zazen is traditionally announced by ringing a bell three times (<em>shijosho</em>), and the end of a round by ringing the bell either once or twice (<em>hozensho</em>).<br/> Long periods of zazen may alternate with periods of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinhin" target="_blank">kinhin</a> (walking meditation)<br/> The posture of zazen is seated, with folded legs and hands, and an erect but settled spine. The hands are folded together into a simple <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mudra" target="_blank">mudra</a> over the belly. In many practices, the practitioner breathes from the <em><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dantian" target="_blank">hara</a></em> (the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Center_of_gravity" target="_blank">center of gravity</a> in the belly) and the eyelids are half-lowered, the eyes being neither fully open nor shut so that the practitioner is neither distracted by, nor turning away from, external stimuli.<br/> The legs are folded in one of the standard sitting styles:<br/> <ul> <li><em>Kekkafuza</em> (full-<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus_position" target="_blank">lotus</a>)</li> <li><em>Hankafuza</em> (half-lotus)</li> <li><em>Burmese</em> (a cross-legged posture in which the ankles are placed together in front of the sitter)</li> <li><em><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seiza" target="_blank">Seiza</a></em> (a kneeling posture using a bench or <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zafu" target="_blank">zafu</a>)</li> </ul> <br/> In addition, it is not uncommon for modern practitioners to practice zazen in a chair, often with a wedge or cushion on top of it so that one is sitting on an incline, or by placing a wedge behind the lower back to help maintain the natural curve of the spine. One can sit comfortably, but not too comfortably, so as to avoid falling asleep. While each of these styles is commonly taught today, Master <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dogen" target="_blank">Dogen</a> recommended only <em>Kekkafuza</em> and <em>Hankafuza</em>.

Zafu and Zabuton inside Zendo © ॐ www.aumphotos.com 2016

 

Zazen in the mountains : the significance of Plum Blossom (Baika)

Bodhidharma crossed the Himalayas to take Buddhism from India to China. He recited this poem:

 

 “ From the first, I came to this land to Transmit the

Dharma

That I might rescue deluded beings,

And when the Single Blossom opened Its five petals,

The fruit thereof naturally came about of itself  “

The significance of the five petals is a reference to the Gautama Buddha’s five eyes:  two physical eyes, which are the non-worldly eyes of someone who is in meditation, plus the Eye of wise discernment, the Eye of the Dharma, and the Eye of a Buddha.

Similarly, the famous Antaiji temple in northern Kyoto was re-located away from the encroaching city to a remote mountain location in northern Hyugo prefecturein 1976. It was inspired by the very simple, yet deep style of zazen taught by reformer “Homeless Kodo” Sawaki Roshi (1880-1965). Antaiji was very popular with the most serious zazen practitioners from all over Japan and from abroad in the 1960s and 1970s, during which time it was led by Roshi Kosho Uchiyama (d.1996).

 

More recently,  the Plum mountain monastery in Washington State, in the North Western USA is where John Daido Loorie, the photographer,  was Abbot ( see my article “ Zen and Photography I “) . The plum blossom ( Baika) is beloved by Buddhists as it arrives early, in the winter and is therefore considered a harbinger of Spring. It is thus a metaphor for Shakyamuni Buddha, who was considered the first to bring forth the blossoming of the Dharma.

Master Tendō, an Old Buddha, was the thirtieth Abbot and a most venerable monk of Keitoku-ji Temple on the renowned Mount Tendō in the Keigen district of Great Sung China. Once when speaking to the assembly he said, “Here at Tendō in midwinter have come forth the first lines of a verse.” He then recited the following poem of his:

“ The thorn-like, spike-branched Old Plum Tree

Suddenly bursts forth, first with one or two blossoms,

Then with three, four, five, and finally blossoms beyond

count.

No perfume to take pride in, no fragrance to boast of.

In scattering, they evoke a springtime scene as they are

blown over grass and trees.

The patch-robed monks, to a one, have no sooner shaved

their heads

Than, suddenly, the weather shifts with howling winds

and squalling skies,

Until the whole earth is wrapped in swirling snow.

The Old Plum Tree’s silhouette is barely to be seen,

As the freezing cold seizes their noses and rubs them raw.”

 

Similarly, another poem alluding to the allegory of blossoming as enlightenment and the whole universe :

“ When Gautama finally lost His deceiving eyes,

There appeared in the snow a single blossom on one

bough of the Old Plum Tree.

What has now arrived is the growing of thorn-like spurs,

So that all the more I laugh at the spring winds which

send all things flying in disarray. “

 

Similarly another poem on enlightenment linked to Plum Blossoming that is recited:

 

“ On this first day of the year I wish you happiness.

All the myriad things arising are fresh and new.

Upon reflection, my great assembly, I submit to you,

The Plum Tree has blossomed early this spring”

 

Again the allegory of new sprouting as the novitiates and the blossom as enlightenment is within this poem:

 

“ If a single word accords with the Truth,

It will not change, though myriad generations pass:

Thus, eye-shaped willow buds sprout forth from new

branches,

Whereas plum blossoms fill up the older boughs.”

 

Another poem:

“ Everything is so bright and clear,

No need to seek some phantom in the Flowering Plum,

Spontaneously creating rain and raising clouds in past

and present.

Past and present are rare enough, and what ending will

they have? “

 

The Meditation Master Hōen once said in verse:

 

“ The snow-laden north wind sets the valley trees to

swaying.

Everything is buried deep within, with little complaint,

While on the mountain peak, the bright-spirited plum

stands alone.

Even before the twelfth month’s heavy snows spew forth, I

have the feeling of the yearly ‘greater cold’. “

 

The senior monk Taigen Fu also expressed his awakening in verse. He had originally been an academic lecturer, focussing on learning only of the ego mind. One day he had been shaken by the chief cook at Mount Kassan. Fu became enlightened and recited :

 

“ I remember from the days before I had awakened

Whenever I heard the wail of the painted horn, it was like

a cry of grief.

Now, when upon my pillow, I have no idle dreams

And just trust to whatever the Plum Blossom may blow

my way, large or small. “

 

 

Koans of mountains

While teaching the Buddha would often refer to the white cow of Snow mountain. On the mountain there were many varieties of grass that would lead to nourishing milk which makes those who drink it thrive better. Similarly the Buddhadharma nourishes the wisdom of those that accept it. Many koans are centred around a mountain journey.

Sunburst from Skiddaw on to Buttermere © ॐ www.aumphotos.com 2016

 

OLD MONK TO YOUNG MONK

On the terrace of a small temple high in the mountains, an old Zen Buddhist monk stood next to his much younger disciple while they both contemplated the great Void of misty space out yonder. Referring to the Void, the old monk at one point gently declared: "Ah, my son, one day all of this will be yours."

 

 

 

SAME - DIFFERENT

Yunmen sang:

" The cloud and the moon, both the same.

Valleys and mountains, each different.

Are they one, or are they two?

Wonderful! Splendid! "

 

Finally, let us contemplate this poem by the Chan hermit Shiwu (1272-1352), also known as Chinghong :

 

" My hut isn’t quite six feet across

surrounded by pines bamboos and mountains

an old monk hardly has room for himself

much less for a visiting cloud 

 

Standing outside my pointed-roof hut

who’d guess how spacious it is inside

a galaxy of worlds is there

with room to spare for a zazen cushion

 

My mind outshines the autumn moon

not that the autumn moon isn’t bright

but once full it fades

no match for my mind

always full and bright

as to what the mind is like

why don’t you tell me? "

 

 

© ॐ www.aumphotos.com 2016

 

REFERENCES

  1. Lankavatara Sutra, chapter LXXXII, p.192 Suzuki-translation, p.223/224 in brackets http://lirs.ru/do/lanka_eng/lanka-nondiacritical.htm

  

  1. Heine (ed.), Steven; Wright (ed.), Dale S. (2007). Zen Ritual : Studies of Zen Buddhist Theory in Practice: Studies of Zen Buddhist Theory in Practice. Oxford University Press. p. 223. ISBN 9780198041467.
  2. Maezumi, Hakuyu Taizan; Glassman, Bernie (2002). On Zen Practice: Body, Breath, Mind. Wisdom Publications. pp. 48–49. ISBN 086171315X.
  3. Suzuki, Shunryū (2011). Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind. Shambhala Publications. p. 8. ISBN 978-159030849-3.
  4. Steven Heine, Shifting Shape, Shaping Text: Philosophy and Folklore in the Fox Kōan (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1999), 41.
  5.  Steven Heine, Dōgen and the Kōan Tradition: A Tale of Two Shōbōgenzō Texts (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994), 125.

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